In this eLearning module, you will learn about fatty acid metabolism- peroxisomal, alpha, and omega oxidation. In Fatty acid metabolism, mitochondria degrade the majority of long-chain fatty acids to supply acetyl-CoA for the production of ATP and for anabolic reactions. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation is more involved in anabolic processes. The two organelles work together for the metabolism of fatty acids. Peroxisomes are organelles that sequester diverse oxidative reactions and play important roles in metabolism, reactive oxygen species detoxification, and signaling. Alpha oxidation is the oxidation of fatty acids with the removal of one carbon unit adjacent to the alpha carbon from the carboxylic end. Alpha oxidation occurs in those fatty acids that have a methyl group at the beta carbon which blocks beta-oxidation. Omega oxidation is the third and final fatty acid oxidation pathway, that occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum. It exists to process large, water-insoluble fatty acids that would otherwise be toxic to the cell in higher concentrations.
DEGRADATION OF CHOLESTEROL
In this eLearning module, you will learn about the Degradation of cholesterol. In the degradation of cholesterol, the chief metabolic end products are bile acids, although cholesterol may also be converted into sex hormones and adrenocortical hormones. Since degradation of cholesterol depends on the levels of bile salts in the liver, any factor which will increase the turnover of bile acids will also accelerate cholesterol catabolism and may in turn lower serum cholesterol.
DE NOVO SYNTHESIS OF CHOLESTEROL
In this eLearning module, you will learn about the Denovo synthesis of cholesterol. In mammals, cholesterol is either absorbed from dietary sources or synthesized de novo. Up to 70-80% of the cholesterol in humans is synthesized de novo by the liver and 10% is synthesized de novo by the small intestine. Cancer cells require cholesterol for cell membranes, so cancer cells contain many enzymes for de novo cholesterol synthesis from acetyl-CoA.
METABOLISM OF KETONE BODIES
In this eLearning module, you will learn about the Metabolism of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are an important source of energy. These are molecules used by the liver to synthesize acetyl-CoA. The body can use ketones as a source of energy in the absence of a carbohydrate source. Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply.
In this eLearning module, you will learn about Lipoprotein Metabolism. Lipoproteins are lipid transport molecules that transport plasma lipids. Lipoprotein metabolism is the process by which hydrophobic lipids, namely triglycerides and cholesterol, are transported within the interstitial fluid and plasma. Lipoprotein metabolism can be subdivided into the transport of exogenous lipids, and the transport of endogenous lipids from the liver to peripheral tissues.
DE NOVO SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACIDS
In this eLearning module, you will learn about the De novo synthesis of fatty acid. De novo fatty-acid synthesis involves two key enzymes, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty-acid synthase (FASN). The first step in de novo fatty acid synthesis is the transfer of acetate units from mitochondrial acetyl CoA to the cytosol. A de novo synthesis of fatty acid involves the production of palmitate from acetyl CoA through a series of reaction.
FATTY ACID METABOLISM 1: LIPOLYSIS
In this eLearning module, you will learn about Lipolysis. Lipolysis is defined as the hydrolytic cleavage of ester bonds in triglycerides (TGs), resulting in the generation of fatty acids (FAs) and glycerol. Fatty acid β-oxidation is a multistep process by which fatty acids are broken down by various tissues to produce energy.
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