In this eLearning module, you will learn about Pleura. Pleura is a thin layer of tissues that covers the lungs and lines the interior wall of the chest cavity. It act as a protection and cushion for the lungs. The pleura is a vital part of the respiratory tract whose role it is to cushion the lungs and reduce any friction that may develop between the lungs, rib cage, and chest cavity. The pleura consist of a two-layered membrane that covers each lung. The viscous lubricant known as the pleural fluid separates the layers.
In this eLearning module, you will learn about Pericardium. Pericardium can be termed as a fibro serous sac that encloses the heart and the root of its great vessel. The fibrous layer of the pericardium is a single connective tissue layer that is made up of collagen. This layer of the pericardium is held in position cranially by its membranous folds that are interdigitating with the tunica adventitia of the great vessels
In this eLearning module, you will learn about Introduction of Thorax. The thorax is located between the abdomen inferiorly and the root of the neck superiorly. It forms from the thoracic wall. The thorax includes bony structures including the 12 pairs of ribs and thoracic vertebrae. It is supported by many ligaments and muscles. The two major openings in the thorax are superior thoracic aperture found superiorly and the inferior thoracic aperture located inferiorly. The superior thoracic aperture opens towards the neck.
In this eLearning module, you will learn about Intercostal spaces. The intercostals spaces, also known as interspaces, are the space between the ribs. There are 11 spaces on each side and they are numbered according to the rib. It contains intercostal muscles, nerves, arteries, veins and investing fascia. The intercostal spaces are filled by the three groups of intercostals muscles. Intercostal nerves and associated major arteries and veins lie in the costal groove along the inferior margin of the superior rib and pass in the plane between the inner two layers of muscles.
In this eLearning module, you will learn about Thoracic oesophagus. The esophagus is a muscular tube that conveys food and fluids from the pharynx to the stomach. It forms part of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The esophagus is subdivided into three anatomical segments like cervical, thoracic and abdominal. The esophagus is a 25 cm long fibromuscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach. The trachea and esophagus travel closely together through the neck, with the vertebral column situated posterior to the esophagus.
In this eLearning module, you will learn about Thoracic duct. The largest lymphatic vessel in the human body is the thoracic duct. The cells of the immune system circulate through the lymphatic system. The thoracic duct is the main lymphatic vessel for the return of chyle/lymph to the systemic venous system. It drains lymph from both lower limbs, abdomen, left hemithorax, left upper limb and left side of face and neck. The thoracic duct crosses the diaphragm at the aortic hiatus at the level of the twelfth thoracic vertebra.
In this eLearning module, you will learn about Azygos venous system. The azygos system or the azygos venous system is a collective term given to the H-shaped configuration of the azygos, hemiazygos, accessory hemiazygos and left superior intercostals veins. It is located on either side of the vertebral colum and drains the viscera within the mediastinum also the back and thoracoabdominal walls. The azygos vein usually arises either from the lumbar azygos vein or from the posterior side of inferior vena cava around the level of renal veins.
In this eLearning module, you will learn about Blood supply of Heart. The heart is a muscular, four-chambered organ that is responsible for distributing blood throughout the body. The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. The right and left coronary arteries originate from the right and left aortic sinuses. It has a vascular system of its own called the coronary arterial system.
In this eLearning module, you will learn about Mediastinum, Mediastinum is the anatomic region located between the lungs that contains all the principal tissues and organs of the chest except the lungs. This compartment extends longitudinally from the thoracic inlet to the superior surface of the diaphragm. It is divided into the superior and inferior mediastinum.
The heart is located in the middle mediastinum of the thoracic cavity enclosed in the pericardium. 1/3rd of the heart lies to the right and 2/3rd to the left of the midline. It lies opposite to T5-T8 vertebrae in supine position & T6-T9 vertebrae in erect position. The external features of the heart include Apex, Base, 4 surfaces, and borders. The four chambers of the heart include right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, and left ventricle.
In this eLearning module, you will learn about. The ascending aorta is the beginning portion of the largest blood vessel in your body. It carries oxygen-rich blood from your heart to the rest of your aorta. Your two main coronary arteries branch off of the ascending aorta. It is the first part of the largest vessel of the body. The aortic arch is the section of the aorta between the ascending and descending aorta. The descending aorta is the part of the aorta, the largest artery in the body that runs down through the chest and the abdomen.
In this eLearning module, you will learn about Lungs. The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the thorax. The trachea conducts inhaled air into the lungs through its tubular branches, called bronchi. The lungs originate at the bottom of your trachea. It is a tube that carries the air in and out of your lungs. The bronchi then divide into smaller and smaller branches. The bronchioles eventually end in cluster of microscopic air sacs called alveoli.
In this eLearning module, you will learn about Heart-Internal features. The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood around the body by circulating it through the circulatory/vascular system. It is located at the middle mediastinum, wrapped in a two-layered serous sac called the pericardium. The heart has four inner chambers, two atria (upper chambers) and two ventricles (lower ventricles). The pulmonary trunk is a vessel that brings deoxygenated blood from the left ventricle into the lungs. Pulmonary veins return the oxygenated blood from the lungs back into the heart.